Chapter 7 is about approaches. To be successful in advertising you need to bring something new and fresh to the table. The old cliche stuff won't catch anyone's attention anymore. So as a ad designer you need to know whats been done. If you have a product that no one else has, you have nothing to measure up to. But once competition is added to the equation, your product has to show its own benefits and differences. Ways to convey the advertising message is through lecture, drama, or participation. The lecture format is a "straight sell" , the person selling you the product looks directly at the audience or into the camera lens, and does a sort of show and tell. The drama format is sort of an ad in the form of a story, usually involving conflict and emotion. Participation is simply what it says, when consumers participate in the ad, the message sticks. The sony ad with the hand and camera strap with no camera is showing that this new camera is so small, you can't see it behind the hand. A similar example is of mercedes benz,
Here comes a heaping amount of vocabulary, but all are important basic knowledge. These next approaches can overlap each other and can be used in conjunction: demonstration, comparison, and spokesperson. A demonstration is a display of how the product or service works, for example showing what happens to test dummies when not buckled in a car. Comparison compares and contrasts two or more similar products of services, for example the cola war, pepsi and coke. A spokesperson is an individual who positively represents the product, service, or group, for example Len Dawson a football player who did a psa on prostate cancer. A brand icon is a recurring character used to represent a brand or group for example, tony the tiger for frosted flakes. An endorsement is a public statement of approval for a product or service. A testimonial is a favorable message delivered by an expert. The problem/solution approach is sometimes used when the product, service, or group successfully solves an actual problem. The slice of life approach shows a realistic portrayal of life featuring everyday situations. Storytelling is a narrative format in which a tale is told to an audience, utilizing voice, gesture, and imagery. A cartoon is a single panel pictorial sketch or sequence of drawings. In advertising, a musical is a narrative or play that is music-based and where music, singing, and dancing are the vehicles for telling the story. Misdirection ads start out in one way and the suddenly change direction. Adopting another form of visual art makes sense. A documentary is a presentation of facts and information. A mockumentary is a spoof created or shot in the style of a documentary. Montage is the assembling of various short clips or images into a sequence. Animation is a moving image that consists of a series of drawn, painted, or modeled scenes. Pod busters are very short-form content created to complement the TV program and commercials containing sponsor messages called bitcoms, minisodes, or micoseries.
Chapter 8 is about typography and visualization. Typography is designed on two levels- denotation, the literal meaning of the words, and connotation, the meaning suggested by the design of the typography. Display type is used as titles or headlines and is usually bold and sometimes decorative where as body text is usually smaller and simpler for easy readability. Most designers mix typefaces for the display and body text. Visualization is the technique or method used to produce an image, a composition- the visual realization of an ad. Image is a broad term encompassing many kinds of representational, abstract, or nonobjective depictions. Images are also called visuals. Ad companies use the following as general categories or images: Illustration, Photography, Graphic interpretation, Collage, Photomontage, Mixed media, Motion graphics, and Diagram. When you visualize and compose you need to consider the following: Margins, Cropping, Bleed, Rules, and Borders. The following heaping list of terms originated in fine art but are now used for advertisement design: Linear, Painerly, Sharpness, Diffusion, Accuracy, Distortion, Economy, Intricacy, Subtlety, Boldness, Understated, Exaggeration, Predictable, Spontaneous, Opaque, Transparent, Digital transparency, and Pastiche. Type and image form specific relationships, the possible categorizations being: Starring role, Similar characteristics, and Contrast.
Chapter 9 is about Composition. In the design process, first you need to establish a solid idea, then you need to start to visualize it and and then you can start to decide how to compose it. Points to keep in mind are, what do you want to say and to whom; the main point of communication; how to organize the graphic elements; and what to emphasize. The three basic compositional structures to focus on are: type-driven, image-driven, and verbal-visual synergistic. Type-driven compositions emphasize type and de-emphasize image. Image-driven is the other way around; emphasize image, de-emphasize type.Visual-verbal synergy happens when the headline and the main image work together to communicate the meaning. The Jimmy John's ad examples in the book are type-driven, the playland example is image-driven and the Graeter's ad is a visual-verbal synergy. Every application starts with a format, which is the defined perimeter, as well as the field it encloses. Balance is a stability created by an even distribution of visual weight on each side of a central axis. Visual Hierarchy is the arrangement of all graphic elements according to emphasis, and it is employed to guide the viewer. To achieve unity, all the graphic elements must look as though they belong together. Below is an example of an ad series that achieves unity:
The notion of gestalt emphasizes the viewer's perception of an integrated whole. These are the gestalt laws of perceptual organization: Proximity, Similarity, Continuity, Closure, Common fate, and Continuing line. Rhythm is a sequence of graphic elements at prescribed intervals. Directing the viewer through a composition can be achieved through: Arrangement, Movement, Alignment, and Transitions. A designer must consider point of view, for example, far, above, below, eye level, side, and profile. The illusion of spatial depth can be achieved through a variety of means being: Progressive change, Overlapping, Layering, Diagonals and tilted planes, and Atmospheric perspective. Chunking is a technique related to modularity in graphic design, where content is split or information is grouped into chunks. The grid is a modular, compositional structure made up of verticals and horizantals that divide a format into columns and margins.